Abstract: the relevance and significance of this topic is determined by the fact that by analyzing the works of prominent historians, we can trace the development and influence of Derbent as the largest feudal city in the region, the geopolitical and geocultural development of a typical late feudal city of the North-Eastern Caucasus, as a center of local and international trade, a partner and intermediary in trade relations between Russia and the Caucasus and the East, as well as the growing interest shown by the modern peoples of Dagestan in the history of their native land. The study showed that the geographical division of labor, economic specialization, and the development of exchange relations were later one of the most important prerequisites for stimulating exchange between the population of different zones, cities, and villages. In addition, changes in the political situation directly affected the development of Derbent’s trade and economic ties with Iran, Turkey, and Russia. The Derbent khanate is the only possession of Dagestan, where the coinage of silver and copper coinage was established, which had a wide circulation.
Keywords: Russia, North Caucasus, Derbent, Kizlyar, Azerbaijan, ShEmakha, trade, trade routes, caravans, silk road, slave trade